Oceanography

Merit Badge Requirements

 

1) Name four branches of oceanography. Describe at least five reasons why it is important for people to learn about the oceans.

2) Define salinity, temperature, and density, and describe how these important properties of seawater are measured by the physical oceanographer. Discuss the circulation and currents of the ocean. Describe the effects of the oceans on weather and climate.

 

3) Describe the characteristics of ocean waves. Point out the differences among the storm surge, tsunami, tidal wave, and title bore. Explain the difference between sea, swell, and surf. Explain how breakers are formed.

 

4) Draw a cross-section of underwater topography. Show what is meant by:

A) Continental shelf

B) Continental slope

C) Abyssal plains

Name and put on your drawing the following: seamount, guyot, rift valley, canyon, trench, and oceanic ridge. Compare the depths in the oceans with the heights of the mountains on land.

 

5) List the main salts, gases, and nutrients in seawater. Describe some important properties of water. Tell how the animals and plants of the ocean affect the chemical composition of seawater. Explain how differences in evaporation and precipitation affect the salt content of the oceans.

 

6) Describe some of the biologically important properties of seawater. Define benthos, nekton, and plankton. Name some of the plants and animals that make up each of these groups. Describe the place and importance of phytoplankton in the oceanic food chain.

 

7) Do ONE of the following:

A) Make a plankton net. Tow the net by a dock, wade with it, hold it in a current, or tow it from a rowboat. Do this for about 20 minutes. Save the sample. Examine it under a microscope or high-power glass. Identify the three most common types of plankton in the sample. *This may be done in lakes or streams.

B) Make a series of models (clay or plaster and wood) of a volcanic island. Show the growth of an atoll from a fringing reef through a barrier reef. Describe the Darwinian theory of coral reef formation.

C) Measure the water temperature 1 foot below the surface of a body of water four times daily (8 a.m., Noon, 4 p.m., and 8 p.m.) for 6 consecutive days. Measure the air temperature. Note the cloud cover and roughness of the water. Show your findings on a graph. Tell how the water temperature changes with air temperature.

D) Make a model showing the inshore sediment movement by littoral currents, tidal movement, and wave action. Include such formations as high and low waterlines, low tide terrace, berm, and coastal cliffs. Show how the offshore bars are built up and torn down.

E) Make a wave generator. Show reflection and refraction of waves. Show how groins, jetties, and breakwaters affect these patterns.

 

8) Do ONE of the following:

A) Write a 500-word report on any good book about oceanography approved by your counselor.

B) Visit one of the following:

1) An oceanographic research ship or

2) An oceanographic institute.

Write a 500-Word report about your visit

C) Explain to your troop in a 5-minute prepared speech "Why Oceanography Is Important" or describe "Jobs in Oceanography." (Before making your speech, show your speech outline to your counselor for approval.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Worksheet Created by: Rob Greenland 245 East 925 South Layton, Utah 84041 robgreenland@juno.com

Requirement 1

 

What are four branches of oceanography?

 

____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

 

Give 5 reasons why it is important for people to learn about the oceans:

 

1) _________________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

2) _________________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

3) _________________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

4) _________________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

5) _________________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

Requirement 2

 

Define the following terms and also list how these are measured by an oceanographer:

Salinity: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

How Measured: ______________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Temperature: ________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

How Measured: ______________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Density: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

How Measured: ______________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

Give a brief summary, or discuss on paper, the circulation and currents of the ocean: _______________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

Give a brief summary, or discuss on paper, the effects of the oceans on weather and climate: _________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Requirement 3

 

Define the characteristics of ocean waves: _________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Describe the following:

 

Storm Surge: ________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Tsunami: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Tidal Wave: _________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Title Bore: __________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

Explain the following:

 

Sea: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Swell: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Surf: _______________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

Explain how breakers are formed: ________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Requirement 4

 

Draw a cross-section of underwater topography.

 

In your drawing, show what is meant by:

A) Continental Shelf B) Continental Slope C) Abyssal Plains

 

Put the following in your drawing and label them:

A) Seamount B) Guyot C) Rift Valley D) Canyon E) Trench F) Oceanic Ridge

 

Compare the depths in the oceans with the heights of the mountains on land.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Requirement 5

 

List the main salts, gases, and nutrients in seawater

 

Salts: _______________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Gases: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Nutrients: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Describe some important properties of water: _______________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

How do the animals and plants of the ocean affect the chemical composition of seawater? ___________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Explain how the differences in evaporation and precipitation affect the salt content of the oceans: _____________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

 

Requirement 6

 

Describe some of the biologically important properties of seawater: _____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Define the following AND name some of the plants and animals that make up each group:

Benthos: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Plants: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Animals: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Nekton: _____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Plants: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Animals: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Plankton: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________

Plants: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Animals: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Describe the place and importance of phytoplankton in the oceanic food chain: ____________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Requirement 7

 

You have been given five options for this requirement. Select and complete one of them.

 

If you selected Option A:

 

Make a plankton net. Tow the net by a dock, wade with it, hold it in a current, or tow it from a rowboat. Do this for about 20 minutes. Save the sample. Examine it under a microscope or high-power glass. Identify the three most common types of plankton in the sample. *This may be done in lakes or streams.

 

Describe the area that you towed your plankton net: __________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

List the three types of plankton that you identified in your sample:

 

______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________

 

 

If you selected Option B:

 

Make a series of models (clay or plaster and wood) of a volcanic island. Show the growth of an atoll from a fringing reef through a barrier reef. Describe the Darwinian theory of coral reef formation.

 

What models did you build? ____________________________________________________________________________________

 

What materials were used to build your models? ____________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

__ Once you have completed your models, show them to your counselor.

 

Describe the Darwinian theory of coral reef formation: _______________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

If you selected Option C:

 

Measure the water temperature 1 foot below the surface of a body of water four times daily (8 a.m., Noon, 4 p.m., and 8 p.m.) for 6 consecutive days. Measure the air temperature. Note the cloud cover and roughness of the water. Show your findings on a graph. Tell how the water temperature changes with air temperature.

 

List your water temperatures below:

 

Water Temperature Air Temperature

 

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Day 4

Day 5

Day 6

 

 

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Day 4

Day 5

Day 6

8:00 AM

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8:00 AM

 

 

 

 

 

 

Noon

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NOON

 

 

 

 

 

 

4:00 PM

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4:00 PM

 

 

 

 

 

 

8:00 PM

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8:00 PM

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chart your findings on the graphs below

 

Water Temperature Air Temperature

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Day 4

Day 5

Day 6

 

 

 

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Day 4

Day 5

Day 6

 

 

 

Discuss your findings with the water temp in relation to the air temp: ____________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

If you selected Option D:

 

Make a model showing the inshore sediment movement by littoral currents, tidal movement, and wave action. Include such formations as high and low waterlines, low tide terrace, berm, and coastal cliffs. Show how the offshore bars are built up and torn down.

 

__ Once you have built this model completely, take it to your counselor for approval and discussion.

 

Give a brief summary of your experience building this model: _________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

If you selected Option E:

 

Make a wave generator. Show reflection and refraction of waves. Show how groins, jetties, and breakwaters affect these patterns.

 

__ Once you have built this model completely, take it to your counselor for approval and discussion.

 

Give a brief summary of your experience building this model: _________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Requirement 8

 

You have been given three options for this requirement. Select and complete one of them.

 

If you selected Option A:

 

Write a 500-word report on any good book about oceanography approved by your counselor.

 

During your reading use this area to take notes on the book you read and to begin your 500-word report. Complete your 500 word report on a separate sheet of paper and turn it in to your counselor.

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If you selected Option B:

 

Visit one of the following: 1) An oceanographic research ship or 2) An oceanographic institute.

 

Use this area to make notes during your visit. Then, on a separate piece of paper write your 500-word report and hand it in to your counselor.

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If you selected Option C:

 

Explain to your troop in a 5-minute prepared speech "Why Oceanography Is Important" or describe "Jobs in Oceanography." (Before making your speech, show your speech outline to your counselor for approval.

 

Use this area to write down topics and ideas that you want to include in your 5-min speech. Show this outline to your counselor for approval. Give your speech to the members of your troop.

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